Electric Guitar - History

Electric Guitar - History

the story of the commercial success of the electric guitar

Commercial Success

As with many inventions, the electric guitar
initially met with skepticism from
traditionalists--performers as well as makers
and audiences. But country and blues players
and jazz instrumentalists soon took to the
variety of new tones and sounds that the
electric guitar could produce, exploring
innovative ways to alter, bend, and sustain
notes.

The instrument's volume and tones proved
particularly appealing to the enthusiasts
of rock and roll, which emerged in the 1950s.
While it was important to other genres, the electric
guitar was at the heart of the cultural revolution
that rock and roll symbolized. The media
capitalized on the image of the rock and roller
with his slicked-back hair, leather jacket,
motorcycle--and electric guitar.

Rock and roll music was particularly
associated with a new electric guitar design, the
Spanish-style solid-body. The earliest known
commercially produced Spanish solid-body is
the 1939 Slingerland. Around 1940, Les Paul
experimented with such a design, and in 1947,
Paul Bigsby teamed up with country singer
Merle Travis to design a solid-body guitar that
more closely resembled the ones we know
today. But it was radio repairman Leo Fender
who would be the first to successfully
mass-produce and market a Spanish-style
solid-body electric guitar.

The immediate success of Fender's new
style of electric quickly influenced other
manufacturers to start producing their own
models. In 1952 Gibson became Fender's first
major competitor, introducing its own
solid-body guitar with the help of celebrity
endorser Les Paul. The mass production of
these and other new models of highly desirable
electrics allowed teenagers across the country
to reinvent themselves in terms of a vision of
musical rebellion and independence.

Although many people thought that rock
and roll would be a passing fad, by the 1960s it
was clear that this music was firmly rooted in
American culture. And electric guitarists had
become the superstars of rock. Live
performances in large halls and open-air
concerts increased the demand for greater
volume and showmanship. Popular groups like
the Beatles and the Rolling Stones generated an
international following that verged on the hysterical.

By then, most rock guitarists were no
longer aiming to achieve clean, cutting sounds
on the electric guitar. They began to
experiment, and new sounds and textures, like
distortion and feedback, became part of the
guitarist's language. Jimi Hendrix was rock's
great master of manipulated sound. By using
techniques such as maneuvering the guitar's
tremolo arm and playing close to the amplifier,
Hendrix achieved spectacular effects.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s guitarists
continued experimenting. Their new musical
vocabulary emphasized loud, raunchy power
chords, flashy solos, and overall volume,
becoming known as heavy metal. Eddie Van
Halen
experimented with sounds like "dive
bombing," using the tremolo arm to drive the
guitar's lowest note even lower. Hendrix had
done this and frequently forced the instrument
out of tune as a result. But by the mid-1980s,
inventor Floyd Rose had improved solid-body
guitar tremolo systems, making it possible to
"dive bomb" repeatedly.

The last several decades have also
witnessed the rise of professional female
electric guitarists. Thanks to pioneers like
Bonnie Raitt, women have earned an equal
place in what had traditionally been a
male-dominated field. Today, more than six
decades after bursting on the American musical
scene, the electric guitar still features in all types
of music and is played and admired by men and
women, young and old, throughout the world.



Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.

Re: daion guitars and basses

i have a markxx bass for sale. check out craigs list san fran..

Re: daion guitars and basses

: Hello!!! i foun a Catalog in a home page, (Daions online) is hard to get in so a sugest you to use yahoo search or something else,but there you can find a nice catalog of all daions instrument even the prices they had when they where still on producction...I own a Daions Savage Bass and is the beast of all the 4 string basses i ever had...hope this can be helpfull for all of you!!

I have a Heritage 78 (perfect cond.) for sale I have pics to e-mail

Re: daion guitars and basses

: : any kind of info would be helpful,ive got 3 electrics 3 basses and one acoustic and still dont know anything about them.

: I have recently acquired a Daion Legacy guitar and am trying to identify it. I've talked to a couple of people who know quite a bit about Daion guitars but they aren't able to tell which model it is: L9, L99, or L999. It has two snowflakes side by side between the 4th and 5th frets, has a solid cedar top, and has the standard dark brown finish with dark wood binding. Does anyone know which model it is or know anyone who has a Daion catalog which identifies the three models. I can email images of the guitar to anyone who wants one.

Re: daion guitars and basses

Hi!
I recently bought a Diaon L-99 and the way you suscribed your guitar it sounds the same as mine. So your guitar should be an Diaon L-99 BUT inside the soundhole there is a small print were it's written L-99, just one centimeter big.

Good luck

Re: daion guitars and basses

 daion guitars and basses

This popular thread has been given its own page : Re: daion guitars and basses

Re: daion guitars and basses

: : any kind of info would be helpful,ive got 3 electrics 3 basses and one acoustic and still dont know anything about them.

: I have recently acquired a Daion Legacy guitar and am trying to identify it. I've talked to a couple of people who know quite a bit about Daion guitars but they aren't able to tell which model it is: L9, L99, or L999. It has two snowflakes side by side between the 4th and 5th frets, has a solid cedar top, and has the standard dark brown finish with dark wood binding. Does anyone know which model it is or know anyone who has a Daion catalog which identifies the three models. I can email images of the guitar to anyone who wants one.
Hi there tjis is a legay L99. Please Email me a pic
regards Björn

Re: daion guitars and basses

 daion guitars and basses

This popular thread has been given its own page : Re: daion guitars and basses

Re: daion guitars and basses

: : : any kind of info would be helpful,ive got 3 electrics 3 basses and one acoustic and still dont know anything about them.

: : I have recently acquired a Daion Legacy guitar and am trying to identify it. I've talked to a couple of people who know quite a bit about Daion guitars but they aren't able to tell which model it is: L9, L99, or L999. It has two snowflakes side by side between the 4th and 5th frets, has a solid cedar top, and has the standard dark brown finish with dark wood binding. Does anyone know which model it is or know anyone who has a Daion catalog which identifies the three models. I can email images of the guitar to anyone who wants one.
: Hi there tjis is a legay L99. Please Email me a pic
: regards Björn
Hi,
it's shure no L 999, because it's not similar to the one I'm happy to own. But the Number is stamped inside on the bottom right under the hole so you shuold be able to check it.

Daion site

Mike has put up a site for owners of Daion guitars and basses. It is an interesting site for the Daion lover.
http://home.att.net/~daion/index.html

Re: Daion site

Mike -- Steevie here with a l'il update... There's a friend of mine who used to tour with a number of
bands back in the day who says when he got off a plane in Tokyo, some Japanese Daion reps GAVE
them Daions to play in their concerts! My serial number on my Power XX bass starts with "84" which
I'm told makes it an '84 bass (a few were sold in 1984). These last few basses WERE Power XX-B
basses, but they dropped the "B" on the nameplate. I'll send you some pictures that'll get you all
frothy and frosted up in Daion bass juice -- sproutin' the SERIOUS wood!! --Steevie

Re: Daion site

Any original Daions manufactured in believe it or not, Waco Texas?
thanks,
alan

Re: Daion site

Nice Daion site -- I happen to own one of the Daion basses nobody EVER mentions -- the Power
Mark XX. It looks identical and plays/sounds the same as a Mark XX-B (which I used to play) but
it has a few cosmetic differences. On the headstock, for example, there is no Daion logo (tuning
fork) but a very elegant looking "Daion" name painted on. I was told my bass was one of the
last ones ever made by Daion (it's an '84) and aside from a couple of small dings, it's in great
shape. I play an Alembic, Ken Smith, Musicman and of course, Daion -- people wonder what
the hell it is until they hear it -- and THEN the begin to UNDERSTAND! I had mine hot-rodded
with 2002 EMG actives and it is nothing less than a fiery volcano belching forth fire and bombs
from the very bowels of the earth -- a total BITCH! --Steevie

Re: daion guitars and basses

I'd love any info on Daion basses and accoustics. I want to buy a bass, possibly another accoustic, but what are they worth? Can anyone help?

Re: daion acoustic

: I'd love any info on Daion basses and accoustics. I want to buy a bass, possibly another accoustic, but what are they worth? Can anyone help?

I have a '71 Heritage Daion acoustic with a tobacco sunburst finish and gold hardware. Mint condition. Bought it new in Japan in 1985. No idea of its worth now, but I'm ready to sell, as I've moved to bass and drums.

Re: daion acoustic

Do you still want to sell the daion?
Best regards
Björn Gärdsby
: : I'd love any info on Daion basses and accoustics. I want to buy a bass, possibly another accoustic, but what are they worth? Can anyone help?

: I have a '71 Heritage Daion acoustic with a tobacco sunburst finish and gold hardware. Mint condition. Bought it new in Japan in 1985. No idea of its worth now, but I'm ready to sell, as I've moved to bass and drums.

Re: daion acoustic

: Mail me and I will tell you all I know.

: Do you still want to sell the daion?
: Best regards
: Björn Gärdsby
: : : I'd love any info on Daion basses and accoustics. I want to buy a bass, possibly another accoustic, but what are they worth? Can anyone help?

: : I have a '71 Heritage Daion acoustic with a tobacco sunburst finish and gold hardware. Mint condition. Bought it new in Japan in 1985. No idea of its worth now, but I'm ready to sell, as I've moved to bass and drums.

Re: daion guitars and basses

: any kind of info would be helpful,ive got 3 electrics 3 basses and one acoustic and still dont know anything about them.

ok...i'm in...i just today bought a mark xx six-string electric , black, with through-neck and it's in beautiful shape! plays great, once i do a setup on it, it's a keeper. it looks like a p.r.s. macarty, but the detail and workmanship surpass any p.r.s. guitar i've seen under $5000.00! in the original green case with unworn grey lining, including the truss-rod tool and allen wrench for the bridge, $200.00! i'm a happy camper!

Re: daion guitars and basses

: any kind of info would be helpful,ive got 3 electrics 3 basses and one acoustic and still dont know anything about them.

ok...i'm in...i just today bought a mark xx six-string electric , black, with through-neck and it's in beautiful shape! plays great, once i do a setup on it, it's a keeper. it looks lie a p.r.s. macarty, but the detail and workmanship surpass any p.r.s. guitar i've seen under $5000.00! in the original green case with unworn grey lining, including the truss-rod tool and allen wrench for the bridge, $200.00! i'm a happy camper!

Re: daion guitars and basses

My son (helps at a music store) brought a Flying V home today. Some kid's Mom drove over it in her garage and the remains, sans humbuckers and tones/switches are right now in my lounge. It's a lovely looking Jet Black, High Gloss instrument with a bolt-on neck. (neck is busted bad but the rest is OK except for the pilfered parts) Don't you hate it to see one of these black beauties in distress. I had guitars 35 years - I'll see what I can do. Especially now I know they have a secret fan club!!! heheheh

Re: daion guitars and basses

: i have a strange guitar called The 81 caribou that i piced up from apawn shop a few months ago.I has a distinct cutaway on the bottom of the guitar.Anyone no anything about this weird but beautiful instrument.

Re: daion guitars and basses

: any kind of info would be helpful,ive got 3 electrics 3 basses and one acoustic and still dont know anything about them.

Re: daion guitars and basses

Hi Patrice,
not easy to contact the other side of the world!

Perhaps this way:
I´ve heard, that you look for the mails in the family, so I write to you. But all the mail adresses I have, do not run.

I´m Philipp Moonen, the son of Willibert Moonen from Germany. It´s 8 years ago, since I met Hans and Lou in Germany, but I´ve heard that they come again this September when my brother Clemens will marry Anika in Swiss. So I will meet them again.
I´m very happy, that my plans take me to Australia in October or November this year. Two years ago I finished my studies and wanted to become a teacher for sports and biology, but in school as a teacher I was overtaxed and always in a bad mood, so I cancelled my training. It wasn´t how I have had expected to be. I tried to get a new training to become a sound-engineer, but I might have been too old for the training and they chose another person. Later I decided to get away from Germany a little bit to think about all from another point of view. And the idea was to do that in Australia for one year like lots of people, coming for Work&Travel. I want to find different kind of jobs, drive around Australia with a van that I want to buy there and do a lot of windsurfing, which is my absolute favourite sport. I have seen the video of Erika, Christel, Hans-Willi and Hans-Willi2 and all of you nice guys. You seem to be a nice family with lots of fun and satisfaction. That’s cool!
It´s my 30th birthday on September the 17th and I want to party with lots of friends that age and my trip to Australia. Meanwhile I have an Australian flag in my room and a big map of complete Australia. I also bought the “Lonely Planet”, the best guide book you can get, to plan my trip.
In August 15th to 21st there is the “World Youth Day” in Cologne (http://www.wjt2005.de/index.php?id=5&si=0), the city in Germany where I have studied and where I live for 7 years. I will work there as private sound-engineer in the KHG (http://www.khg-koeln.de), where lots of events are planned for that week. We will have concerts and discussions, etc. In the KHG I have my storage for my little music-rent & discjockey-company, that I built up the last 5 years and with which I financed my studies. My website is www.mls-verleih.de .
If you know some Australian people, who wants to come to Cologne for the World-Youth-Day, they can contact me, if they need a place to stay or if they need someone to show the city or to give information. They should also have a look at the concerts we make!

I´could write so much more about me and what I think about now, but that should be enough for the first time. I hope you or someone write back.

Nice greetings from Germany!
Philipp

Philipp Moonen
Im Wiesengrund 28
50354 Hürth
philippmoonen75@hotmail.com
Tel. 02233-692562(AB)
0160-91551111

Für Partys und Feste:
Privat-Discjockey: DJ Moonlight
Musikanlagenverleih
Lichtanlagenverleih
www.mls-verleih.de
info@mls-verleih.de

Re: daion guitars and basses

If you can remember the very first Duran-Duran video on MTV, whasshisname is playing a lipstick red Daion bass. I hated Duran-Duran, but I would tolerate that video just to get a glimpse of the only other Daion I ever saw being played.

I bought a brand new black bolt-on neck bass in 1981 for the enormous sum of $400 (the aluminum neck Kramer I also lusted for was only $350). The only guitar I have ever owned that played better was a Rickenbacker 4001 that was undoubtably one of the first of it's kind (four digit serial number...and I sold it for $175 because it was getting beat up on the road, aargghh). The only thing I ever owned that sounded better was a jap Spector. I'd rather have the Daion than either of the above, though. If anyone wants to sell one of the bolt-ons, I'm buying! Mike C.

Re: daion guitars and basses

 daion guitars and basses

This popular thread has been given its own page : Re: daion guitars and basses

Re: daion guitars and basses

I bought a new Daion 'Model 80' in about 1981 in Charleston, SC. at a local music store.
It is a beautiful but unorthodax acoustic. Excellesnt guitar. The neck adjustment screw is in the body, fine gold colored tuners, an oval shaped sounding hole, all dark wood body.
I probably paid to much for it at that time (1981) $550, but just liked the guitar and the way it looked and sounded.
Will send a picture if anyone is interested, as I still have and use the guitar.
My E-mail is rongood@bellsouth.net

Have a great day!

Re: daion guitars and basses

ok fellow daion owners here's what i can dig up. from a very reliable source the story i got was that daions were built in japan and germany in the late 70's and early 80's and distributed out of austin texas.they apparently were trying to do battle with bigger luthiers ie.alembic and martin. by moving the building where labor was cheaper but still good. these instruments had a high ticket price if i understand... but lets just say they lost the battle. the company folded and these guys were literally selling these beauties out of hotel rooms. i love mine and i have owned basses ranging from fenders to handmade schectors to custom warwicks. i love this bass. hope this helps.

Re: daion guitars and basses

I have daion base I bought new in 1983 from a music store in Dallas Texas. It is one of the nicest instruments anyone could ever own. Someone sent me some scans of a Daion Catalog (mostly Acoustic Guitars) that I would be willing to email, contact me jpmedlock@covad.net

Re: daion guitars and basses

 daion guitars and basses

This popular thread has been given its own page : Re: daion guitars and basses

Re: daion guitars and basses

I have a Daion acoustic that I've had for about 15 years and it's the best! I made my living with it for the first 10 years of playing out. I just recently bought a matched pair: A Heritage 12 and a 6. Way too cool! Can anyone give me the history of these guitars?
Rick Redington

Re: daion guitars and basses

I've got a Daion Mark XX-B bass guitar that I've loved for 20 years. It's just like one at this url:
http://www.basspalace.com/dynamic/displaybass/4StringBass/878
Notice that these guys want you to call for a price. All I know is that I played mine professionally 4 nights a week for 5 years and it plays as well now as it did then, although I did have to have the frets redone halfway up the neck. To all of you that do have a Daion, you've got a truly well built and beautiful instrument to enjoy for a lifetime. Enjoy!

Re: daion guitars and basses

I also have a guitar like the one in the picture. It is very nice and I am enjoying it a lot. It is really a great bass.

Re: daion guitars and basses

I have the most amazing Acoustic DAION guitar. I bought it from my uncle's music shop in 1984 in Newfoundland.
I have had so many compliments over the years, and there have been musicians who have wanted to buy it from me,
however, this gal isn't selling....it's that great of a guitar!!!

There isn't a great deal of information on these gems, is there?
I do know that there were manufactured in Japan and that Ray Bensen, the lead singer for the country band:
"Asleep At The Wheel" did quite a bit of promotional work for this guitar. I have yet to meet another person
that has one... so, if anyone knows anything substantial about the Daion, like what the name means, or the symbol represents
that would be great. I cannot understand for the life of me why they stopped making this great sounding guitar.
CHEERS!

Re: daion guitars and basses

: I have the most amazing Acoustic DAION guitar. I bought it from my uncle's music shop in 1984 in Newfoundland.
: I have had so many compliments over the years, and there have been musicians who have wanted to buy it from me,
: however, this gal isn't selling....it's that great of a guitar!!!

: There isn't a great deal of information on these gems, is there?
: I do know that there were manufactured in Japan and that Ray Bensen, the lead singer for the country band:
: "Asleep At The Wheel" did quite a bit of promotional work for this guitar. I have yet to meet another person
: that has one... so, if anyone knows anything substantial about the Daion, like what the name means, or the symbol represents
: that would be great. I cannot understand for the life of me why they stopped making this great sounding guitar.
: CHEERS!

: I likewise have an Anea acoustic guitar which I purchased new in about 1984 at Atlanta Discount Music in Atlanta.They were selling new Anea and Daion guitars side by side, and told me that they were the same instruments, simply with a change of label.Mine is labeled Model TN-27/T. I have no idea what these letters and numbers refer to. It's shape is most similar to what is often described as a "Grand Concert" model,a very pinched-hip, womanly shape with an extremely rounded back. I opted for the model with the built-in bridge pick-up. Volume and Tone pots are on the top side, near the neck joint, I do not know the manufacturer of the p/u, but it is high quality. Price new was $360.00, with form-fitting hardshell case. I seem to remember one other model being offered, larger, closer to a Jumbo or Dreadnaught style. Likewise, two different finishes were offered, a dark brown, or a more natural blonde.I have never seen an electric Daion/Anea guitar or bass, however, I do remember seeing several country musicians playing the same model Anea I have. I love this guitar, over the past 25 years I have played it more often than my other acoustics, consider it my everyday instrument, and wouldn't dream of parting with it. It is surprisingly LOUD for its size and has a bright, even tone that is somewhat jangly, but has mellowed over the years. I prefer medium-high action and brass strings, and the guitar suits my favorite acoustic music styles(Piedmont blues and country string band tunes) perfectly. No dead spots, but like most high quality guitars it is sensitive to temperature and (particularly) humidity changes-I have had the bridge re-glued twice and a new bone nut constructed.It also has some dings in the finish, and a small crack in the top(a souvenir of too many beers and a newell post), but these do not affect its playability or sound. That's about all I can say about my Anea, except that like several others I have always wondered why they never became more popular, though I was once told that the company had pretty significant distribution problems. Hope this helps!

Re: daion guitars and basses

 daion guitars and basses

This popular thread has been given its own page : Re: daion guitars and basses

Re: daion guitars and basses

I own a Daion bass that I bought several years ago from my cousin. He plays guitar and bought it just to keep a bass around in case someone wanted to jam. He bought it from a music store that was going out of business in St. Louis, Missouri. I just started playing again with some friends after letting it just sit there for years. I get lots of compliments on it. I've only seen one other Daion, another bass that looked just like mine except that it was green (mine is burgandy), and it had all four tuning keys on one side of the headstock, whereas mine has two on each side. I saw it in a pawn shop here in Jacksonville, Florida, and I really wish I had bought it. I found this site in my own quest for info on Daion. I definately won't part with mine. It's a great instrument.

Re: daion guitars and basses

I am also seeking info. I got an acoustic for next to nothing 8 years ago. It's cut away on the high E side
but also on the bottom (the entire body curves in). As my knowledge increased I discovered it has a
solid spruce top and a flamed maple back. The headstock is also flamed. It's awesome! It originally
had a brass nut and saddle. The bridge needed work and now sports a bone saddle. The sound hole
is oval. I have worn a hole through it I've played it so much. It still sounds great. It is just starting to
need the frets filed. With medium strings I can beat the heck out of it and strings rarely snap. No one
seems to know a thing about Daion. I found some japenese sights but the contents couldn't fully be
displayed. There were pictures and the Daion symbol is there.

Re: daion guitars and basses

Like to sell them? :-)

: any kind of info would be helpful,ive got 3 electrics 3 basses and one acoustic and still dont know anything about them.

Re: daion guitars and basses

I have an acoustic that I've had since the 80's.I was told they were hand made in Japan by one person at a time.The one who made the guitar left his mark engraved very small in between the tuners,I heard that they were made from the late 70's to about 85 or so.I believe the company that made them is making Gretshes there now. They have the brass nut and they are one of the best deep sounding guitars I've ever heard.

Progressive Rock band CHECK IT OUT!!!

www.fooyoungtone.homestead.com

hagstrom guitar value

Any idea the approx. value of a hagstrom hollow body (possibly a "Riviera") circa 1971?
In decent conditions. Thanks, Eric.

Hagstrom 1 guitar value

I have a 1965 Hagstrom 1 (baby blue) that I have owned since I was 12 years old. I am now 53 years old. My guitar teacher was the original owner and sold it to me. It is in very good condition with the naughahyde back cover slipping away from the body in 2 places. That is being fixed by an expert right now. It plays great and the lucite front has NO scratches.
Would have an approximate value on this piece??? I plan on keeping it, but was just curious...
Thanks, Keith

Re: hagstrom guitar value

i have found this guitar in my dads closset, i don´t exactly know the model i found a picture on the internet of a hagstrom guitar just like the mine its a hagstrom kent 1964 in red

Re: hagstrom guitar value

I have a Hagstrom 3/4 flatop serial# 89891. Can anyone tell me something about it? Age or value in good condition?

Re: hagstrom guitar value

Wondering the value on a Hagstrom acoustic. Serial #91938. Good condition.

Re: hagstrom guitar value

: Wondering the value on a Hagstrom eight string bass, (sunburst)in far/good condition,(early 70's?), Serial #727307. Thank You-Jason

Re: hagstrom guitar value

: Wondering the value on a Hagstrom acoustic. Serial #91938. Good condition.

Dear Dana,

I have a hagstrom acoustic guitar with little hearts around the sound hole. I bought it in 1974 and it's in mint condition. Do you have any idea of its value? If not, do you know how I can find out? Thanks for your help.

Debbie

Re: hagstrom guitar value

Any Idea of the value of a Hagstrom 1 from the 60's. has plastic top and red vinyl on the back

Thank you

I am 19 and I am doing a report on how the eletric guitar influenced America. I just want to say that this article helped me a lot. Thank you!

More stories about electric guitars......

Hi,i have to say i am so impressed with your homepage and thank for sharing imformation with the people around the world.I am a college student and i am working on my project now,surely i have chosen my favouratite stuff-electric guitar as the subject of the project.But i havent gathered up enough imformation of electric guitar.In my mind you are the one could help me to find out the stories like:what makes the birth of electric guitar?Why guitars have to be six strings?What stories behind after the first invented electric guitar?Anyone strongly disagrees or agrees with this revolution of musical instrument?What makes electric guitar so popular and be well received?Why electric guitar becomes the solution of band showing?Any effect for the electric guitarist(like deaf or causing impulse of violence)?I desperately need your help,thanks for reading my questions.

Re: More stories about electric guitars......

STINK POO!!!! LOL! EAT POO AND EGGS!!!!

Post new comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Do not include any spaces in your answer.
Image CAPTCHA
Copy the characters (respecting upper/lower case) from the image.

Contact | Contents | Privacy Policy | Forum

This site is published by Hitsquad Pty Ltd. Copyright © 1999 - 2019 , All Rights Reserved.

Affiliate Notice: As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.